The 19th National Congress of the CPC views the systematic and coordinated reform as a major breakthrough and important experience in conducting comprehensive reform. The requirement of focusing on the systematic and coordinated reform has been written in the party constitution. Besides, the national congress made new arrangements for achieving the goal of building a moderately prosperous society and strengthening China’s national strength by building a modern socialism. 2018 is the first year of implementing the spirit of the 19th National Congress of the CPC, this year also marks the 40th anniversary of China’s reform and opening up and it is a crucial year for the decisive victory of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and the implementing the 13th five-year plan. Only if we study thoroughly the socialism with Chinese characteristics in the era of President Xi Jinping and put it into practice as well as ensuing a systematic and coordinated reform, can we have a good start of implementing the spirit of the 19th National Congress of the CPC.
The six major reforms are made for the same goal.
Comrade Xi Jinping pointed out that a comprehensive and deepening reform means to push forward reform in all areas. We need to have a general goal and clarify the objective of every reform stage. The third plenary session of the 18th CPC central committee stressed that the ultimate goal of the comprehensive and deepening reform is to improve and develop the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, and to achieve modernization of the governance system. The six major reforms of economic system, political system, cultural system, social system, ecological civilization system and party institution must always be carried out according to the ultimate goal of achieving the comprehensive and deepening reform. Furthermore, all the reforms should be conducive to the improvement and development of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, and the modernization of national governance.
The extensive facts have proved that the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the only way to achieve socialist modernization and create a better life for the people. The system of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the basic system which can guarantee of development and progress of contemporary China, it is the right choice made by the Chinese communist party, and conforms with the fundamental interests of the 1.3 billion Chinese people. The system is based on the primary stage of socialism, aims to gather enthusiasm from all aspects, develop productivity and build a solid economic foundation. Therefore, the direction of reform is to constantly promote self-improvement and the development of the socialist system, rather than changing the course of the socialist system. The 18th CPC central committee set out the comprehensive and deepening reform as the final goal and general direction of reform, which we must adhere to during the entire reform process. We should improve every aspect of the system by creating a systemic, scientific and effective operation so as to ensure that a moderately prosperous society can be built by 2020, and a strong socialist country by the middle of this century.
National governance system and governance capacity reflect a country’s institution and institutional implementation. Promoting the modernization of national governance system and governance ability is necessary for transforming the institutional advantage into national governance, social governance and economic development and international competitiveness. Furthermore, it is prerequisite for creating opportunity for everyone to display their talent, safeguarding and improving People’s livelihood as well as building a strong, prosperous and harmonious socialist country. The modernization of national governance system and governance capability has a rich meaning. For example, in the mode of governance, it should include state management, governing the country according to law, good ethics, regional autonomy, the grassroots autonomy so as to form a fully-covered, diversified, multi-level and efficient management system. In terms of the governing body, we should adhere to the leadership of the party, give full play to all levels of government, the National People’s Congress, Chinese people’s Political Consultative Conference, democratic parties, social organizations, enterprises and other institutions. In terms of governance, we should widely use various information networks and intelligent platforms to establish a unified command center and early-warning system. By implementing the six major reform, we can promote the modernization of national governance, make the system more scientific and efficient, and ensure national security and improve people’s livelihood.
The six major reforms should coordinate with each other
Comrade Xi pointed out that reform and opening up is a systematic project and we have to adhere to a comprehensive reform while promoting coordination during different aspects of reform. The six major reforms cover many aspects of national governance and form a complex project. All reforms are closely related with each other and thus, coordinating with each other is essential for achieving satisfactory outcome.
Economic institutional reform is the focal point of the deepening and comprehensive reform. In the new era, the comprehensive reform must be based on the fact that China has been in the primary stage of socialism for a long period and its development is still the key to solve all the problems. With economic development as the center, we should match the production relations with productivity, match the superstructure with the economic foundation to promote sustained and healthy economic and social development. Productivity determines the production relations, economic foundation determines the superstructure and hence, we must always take the level of productivity into consideration when reforming and perfecting the political, cultural, social, ecological and civilized systems. For example, the market competition mechanism is important for promoting the development of productivity. However, market competition also has its own limitation as it widens the income gap and affect social justice. As a result, we have to improve the political system, cultural system and ensure social justice in the process of improving the socialist market economic system. The core issue of the economic reform is to handle the relationship between the government and the market. We need to allow the market to play a decisive role in the allocation of resources and the government should provide institutional guarantees for the sustained and healthy economic development.
Political reform is crucial to the progress of the society. We must unswervingly follow the socialist development with Chinese characteristics. We will lose everything if we follow the wrong path. Thus, we must ensure that all reforms will follow the direction of socialism with Chinese characteristics by reforming the political system]. To this end, we should uphold and improve the people’s congress system, the system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, the system of regional ethnic autonomy and the system of self-government at the grassroots level. Among them, the people’s congress system is an essential political system that insists on the leadership of the party, put people’s interests first govern the country by law. We must adhere to this system continuously and improve it. Socialist consultative democracy is a unique form and advantage of China’s socialist democracy. We must perfect the democratic system, enrich the form of democracy, broaden the channels for democracy, and ensure that the people are the master of their own in the political and social life. By actively and steadily advancing the reform of the political system, we should promote the institutionalization, and standardization of the socialist democratic politics and ensure that the people can administer state affairs, manage economic and cultural undertakings through various channels and forms according to law.
The reform of the cultural system can create a powerful spiritual force that will inspire the people of all ethnic groups throughout the country to lay the institutional foundation for building a powerful socialist country. Culture is the soul of a nation and it can bring people together. In order to build a powerful socialist country with a strong culture, we should improve the cultural management system and speed up the construction of a mechanism that give top priority to social benefits and combines with economic benefit. Moreover, we should strengthen educational guidance, spread the core values of socialist to all aspects of social development. We should improve the public cultural service, implement the projects that benefit the people and enrich people’s cultural activities, promote our ability in international communication, and enhance China’s soft power.
The reform of social system directly determines the outcome of safeguarding and improving the people’s livelihood and promoting social fairness and justice. We should focus on the interest people are most concerned about. Through the reform of the income distribution system, we can ensure fair and equitable distribution of income and allow people to share the fruits of reform and development. We should enhance social governance capacity to promote the state governance system. Besides, we should promote institutional innovation, push forward the equalization of basic public services, and speed up the formation of a scientific and effective social governance system to make sure our society is dynamic and harmonious. In terms of reforming institutional mechanisms such as education, employment, social security and medical care, we should make sure that the offering of public services meet people’s growing demand for a better life. We will improve the national security system, strengthen the rule of law, and enhance our ability to minimize security risks. Through the reform of the social system, we will continuously meet people’s growing needs for a better life and constantly promote social fairness and justice, so as to provide our people with a sense of happiness, safety and sustainability.
The goal of the reform on ecological civilization system is to build a beautiful China and promote harmonious development between man and nature. The modernization we want to build is a modern and harmonious co-existence between man and nature. On the one hand, we must create more material and spiritual wealth to meet the people’s growing needs for a better life. On the other hand, we also need to provide more eco-products to meet the people’s growing need for a good ecological environmental. In order to reform the system of ecological civilization, we must speed up the establishment of an ecological civilization system and improve the institutional mechanisms for the development of land and resources, conservation and utilization of resources, and protection of the ecological environment. Moreover, we must implement the most stringent source protection system, compensation system and accountability system to protect the ecological environment. We should speed up the establishment of a legal system and policy guidance on green production and consumption, improve the property rights system of natural resources, establish a market-oriented and diversified ecological compensation mechanism, reform the ecological environment supervision system and so on.
The leadership of the party is the greatest advantage of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics. We must unswervingly adhere to the party’s leadership, improve it and make the party stronger. The party should be embraced by the people, dare to revolutionize itself and stand the test of all kinds in order to build a well-off society in an all-round way and win the great victories of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era. We must reform the party institutions by following the principles of scientific governance, democratic governance and rule the country according to law. Furthermore, it is necessary to strengthen and improve the party’s leadership when promoting further reform and opening up, give full play to the leadership of the party committees at all levels, maximize the consensus on reform, mobilize all positive factors to form a joint force.
The six major reforms above are subsystems of China’s further reform and opening-up. Each subsystem is in a different position and has different functions and thus, we must not only consider its own particularities, but also the relationship among them when formulating specific reforming program, so that they can complement each other and progress together. For example, in terms of promoting the integrated development of urban and rural areas, the economic system reform should focus on the economic system of the integration between the urban and rural areas. The reform of the cultural system should pay more attention to safeguarding the basic cultural rights and interests of peasants. The social system reform should focus on the equalization of basic public services for urban and rural residents. The reform of ecological civilization should find effective ways to control pollution in rural areas so as to solve the problem of garbage disposal as soon as possible. The reform of the Party building system should pay attention to strengthening the Party branch in the rural areas. All the reforms should cooperate with each other to obtain significant achievements in promoting a deepening and comprehensive reform and opening up.